Sistemas Globales de Navegacion (GNSS)

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  • There are two kinds of Positioning and Navigation Systems based  in the space.
  • GNSS: Global Navigation Satellite Systems (with a word wide coverage)
  • RNSS : Regional Navigation Satellite Systems ( covering a specific region or country)
  • Here have a resume of the main characteristics of the currently GNSS.
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  • GLOBAL NAVIGATION SATELLITE SYSTEMS
    1. System: GPS =>
      Country: United States
      Coding: CDMA
      Orbital height & period: 20,200 km, 12.0h
      Number of satellites: ≥ 24
      Frequency: 1.57542 GHz (L1 signal), 1.2276 GHz (L2 signal)
      Status: operational
    2. System:GLONASS =>
      Country: Russia
      Coding: FDMA/CDMA
      Orbital height & period: 19,100 km, 11.3h
      Number of satellites: 24 (30 when CDMA signal launches)
      Frequency: Around 1.602 GHz (SP), Around 1.246 GHz (SP)
      Status: operational with restrictions, CDMA in preparation
    3. System: GALILEO =>
      Country: European Union
      Coding: CDMA
      Orbital height & period: 23,222 km, 14.1h
      Number of satellites: 2 test bed satellites in orbit
      22 operational satellites budgeted
      Frequency: 1.164-1.215 GHz (E5a and E5b), 1.215-1.300 GHz (E6), 1.559-1.592 GHz (E2-L1-E11)
      Status: in preparation
    4. System: BEIDOU-2 /COMPASS =>
      Country:China
      Coding: CDMA
      Orbital height & period: 21,150 km, 12.6h
      Number of satellites: 35[5]
      Frequency: B1: 1,561098 GHz, B1-2: 1.589742 GHz, B2: 1.207.14 GHz, B3: 1.26852 GHz
      Status: 5 satellites operational, additional 30 satellites planned
  • LOCAL SYSTEMS
    1. System: QZSS =>
      Country: JAPAN
      Coding: CDMA
      Orbital height & period: HEO 24h
      Number of satellites: 1 test bed satellites in orbit
      3 operational satellites budgeted
      Frequency: L1C/A , L1C , L2C and L5
      Status: in preparation

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_navigation_satellite_system

Global Positioning System Relativistic effects

Global Positioning SystemRelativistic effects In order for your car’s GPS navigation to function as accurately as it does, satellites have to take relativistic effects into account. This is because even though satellites aren’t moving at anything close to the speed of light, they are still going pretty fast. The satellites are also sending signals to ground stations on Earth. These stations (and the GPS unit in your car) are all experiencing higher accelerations due to gravity than the satellites in orbit. To get that pinpoint accuracy, the satellites use clocks that are accurate to a few billionths of a second (nanoseconds). Since … Continuar leyendo «Global Positioning System Relativistic effects»

BEIDOU-2-(COMPASS)

http://events.eoportal.org/presentations/10001572/CNSS_Auto1.jpegBD-2 M / BD-2 I [CAST]BD-2 G2 [CAST]BD 2 (Beidou 2) is a chinese satellite navigation system, which, in contrast to GPS and GLONASS, uses both geostationary satellites and satellites in intermediate orbit.The serie, also called «Compass-G» is the geostationary constellation.The satellites are based on the DFH-3 Bus. They feature a phased array antenna for navigation signals and a laser retroreflector and additionally a S/L-band dish antenna and a C-band horn antenna.The serie called «Compass-M» provides the satellites for the intermediate constellation in 12-hours orbits and for the inclined geostatonary (IGSO) constellation called «Compass-I».The satellites are based on the DFH-3 … Continuar leyendo «BEIDOU-2-(COMPASS)»

QZSS- Quasi-Zenith Satellite System

準天頂衛星システム–Jun tenchō eisei shisutemu Sep 13, 2010 6:00 amJapan Launches Its First GPS Satellite By Martyn Williams, IDG NewsJapan launched on Saturday the first of a planned series of satellites that promise to improve the accuracy of satellite navigation services in the country.The «Michibiki» satellite was sent into space atop a Japanese H-IIA rocket from the country’s Tanegashima Space Center at 8:17 pm local time on Saturday (sep12). The satellite later deployed its solar panels to complete a successful launch, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency said on Sunday.Michibiki is the first in a planned series of three satellites that will … Continuar leyendo «QZSS- Quasi-Zenith Satellite System»

GLONASS- ГЛОНАСС-HURAGAN-Huracan

El sistema de navegación GLONASS A Glonass Three-Pack ================================================================================== EL NÚMERO DE SATÉLITES GLONASS LLEGÓ A 18 Medioambiente y Espacio | 02 de marzo 2010 | 06:30 MSK. El cohete portador “Protón-M” llevó a la órbita terrestre tres satélites que servirán para el funcionamiento del sistema de posicionamiento global GLONASS. Las tropas cósmicas rusas realizaron el lanzamiento desde el cosmódromo de Baikonur, en el territorio del vecino Kazajistán.Los satélites forman un clúster del sistema electrónico ruso de circulación global que ayuda a navegar y encontrar vehículos y cargas perdidos o robados, semejante al sistema GPS estadounidense. Con estos tres nuevos … Continuar leyendo «GLONASS- ГЛОНАСС-HURAGAN-Huracan»

EU’s Galileo Satellite Navigation System

Galileo satellites* 30 in-orbit spacecraft (including 3 spares)* orbital altitude: 23,222 km (MEO)* 3 orbital planes, 56° inclination, ascending nodes separated by 120° longitude (9 operational satellites and one active spare per orbital plane)* satellite lifetime: >12 years* satellite mass: 675 kg* satellite body dimensions: 2.7 m x 1.2 m x 1.1 m* span of solar arrays: 18.7 m* power of solar arrays: 1,500 W (end of life) GALILEO Constellation-// – Simulación del segundo satélite de la flota Galileo, el Giove-BRenace el programa Galileo The Animated gif shows the constallation of the Galileo Satellites, how they are moving around the … Continuar leyendo «EU’s Galileo Satellite Navigation System»

NAVSTAR GPS

SVN62, the First GPS IIF Satellite, Is Set Healthy SVN62 launch (ULA)August 27, 2010. SVN62, the First GPS IIF Satellite, Is Set Healthy (Inside GNSS). The U.S. Air Force declared the first GPS Block IIF satellite (SVN62) operational today (August 27, 2010), changing the spacecraft’s navigation signal status to healthy at about 10:10 a.m. (EDT or 4:10 a.m. UTC).Launched May 28, the satellite became the responsibility of the USAF 50th Space Wing on August 26, where personnel with the 2nd Space Operations Squadron (2SOPS) control the constellation from the GPS Master Control Center at Schriever Air Force Base, Colorado.SVN62, also … Continuar leyendo «NAVSTAR GPS»

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