Cathay and Manzi: The real China Empire.

European and Arab travelers started reaching the Mongol Empire, they described the Mongol-controlled Northern China as Cathay in a number of spelling variants. The name occurs in the writings of Giovanni da Pian del Carpine (c. 1180–1252) (as Kitaia), and William of Rubruck (c. 1220–c. 1293) (as Cataya or Cathaia). Rashid-al-Din Hamadaniibn Battuta, and Marco Polo all referred to Northern China as Cathay, while Southern China, ruled by the Song dynasty, was Mangi, Manzi, Chin, or Sin. The word Manzi (蠻子) or Mangi is a derogatory term in Chinese meaning «barbarians of the south» (Man was used to describe unsinicised Southern China in its earlier periods.)

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